Hernia surgery is a common operation performed typically laparoscopically (keyhole) to repair a defect in the abdominal wall that allows contents of the abdomen (typically fat) to push through it causing a bulge or lump. This can occur anywhere in the abdomen with the most common being an inguinal (groin) hernia.
Gastric reflux occurs due to a failure of the lower oesophageal sphincter (muscle) mechanism comprised of the diaphragm, oesophageal muscle and intra-abdominal attachments. Reflux can be worsened by a hiatus hernia (movement of the stomach through the diaphragm in to the chest) due to widening of the diaphragmatic defect through which the oesophagus passes into the abdomen.
Gallbadder surgery entails laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery to remove the Gallbladder due to symptomatic gallstones.